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Hadrosaur Expansion Pack

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About These Dinosaurs

The Hadrosaur Expansion Pack allows the Corythosaurus model to turn into a dozen different types of hadrosaur!

Lambeosaurines:

  • Corythosaurus - as described in its separate wiki entry, this 10-meter-long hadrosaur roamed western North America in large (apparently mixed) herds between 80 and about 73 mya.
  • Lambeosaurus - L. lambei was apparently a very common 10-meter-long (35 feet) hadrosaur, roaming the western North American plains between about 80 and 73 million years ago ('mya'). Migrating herds may have mingled with Corythosaurus and Parasaurolophus members as well. L. magnicristatus is known from a few specimens towards the end of that time, and may have grown up to 15 meters in length (almost 50 feet), making it one of the largest land animals ever (except for the sauropod dinosaurs, of course!)
  • Parasaurolophus - While instantly recognizable for its trombone crest, only a few fossils of Parasaurolophus are known. The only good skeleton of P. walkeri has an odd notch in its back, but this is believed to be due to an individual injury or disease. P. cyrtocristatus had a smaller, curved crest; and there is much debate over whether these crest variants are due to gender differences, age differences, or truly indicate different species.
  • Tsintaosaurus - This 9-meter hadrosaur from China is grouped with the hollow-crested lambeosaurines, but had a peculiar unicorn-like blunt spike. Some believed this crest was actually flat along the snout, but newer fossils seem to support the projecting position. It is one of the last lambeosaurines known, from nearer the end of the Cretaceous, from 71-68 mya.
  • Olorotitan - At 12 meters in length, this rather large lambeosaurine from Asia is unique in several respects. It was one of the last hadrosaurs to appear (between 67 and 65 mya), certainly the last lambeosaurine known; and its skeleton contains more neck bones than any other known hadrosaur, as well as a couple of other unique skeletal features. It was only formally described (from an almost complete skeleton) in 2003.

Hadrosaurines:

  • Edmontosaurus - Living from about 70 to 65 mya, this large (12-meter) North American hadrosaurine (broad snout, no hollow crest) would have had to contend with Tyrannosaurus. It is the most common hadrosaur known from the period leading up to the end of the Mesozoic.
  • Hadrosaurus - Conversely, Hadrosaurus was one of the earliest (84-80 mya) smallest (8-9 meters), and least specialized of the enire group which bears its name. Something very much like it probably gave rise to all of the later forms.
  • Maiasaura - This smallish (9-meter) hadrosaur provided data on how these dinosaurs raised their young in North America, between about 80 and 73 mya… large nesting communities have been found, hence its name ('Good Mother Reptile')
  • Prosaurolophus - Another North American type, this small (8-meter) hadrosaurine had a small solid knob on its head. It lived between 80 and 73 mya.
  • Saurolophus - Known from both North America and Asia, this late (73-67 mya) large hadrosaur (12 meters) had a relatively large (for a hadrosaurine) but solid, spike angled up and back from its skull

General Paleontological Notes

There are many other hadrosaurs known, but the ones in this pack represent most of the major types. Many of the crestless hadrosaurines looked very similar to each other (for example, there is still debate over whether Anatosaurus, Anatotitan, Trachodon, and Edmontosaurus are different types at all - some may simply have been large individual specimens of Edmontosaurus), while the giant Asian Shantungosaurus was also very similar. Others are left out because they are only known from partial remains (for example, the Russian lambeosaurine Charonosaurus may have been very similar to the North american Parasaurolophus, but no skeletons with complete crests have been discovered to date. Earlier in 2008, a new lambeosaurine, Velafrons from Mexico was described - but I had to draw a limit somewhere!

Hadrosaurs (or 'Duckbilled Dinosaurs') were one of the last major dinosaur groups to appear. They apparently evolved from small iguanodonts in the first part of the Late Cretaceous Period, about 100 million years ago, but rose to prominence about 80 million years ago. Over time, they had lost their thumbs, and their plant-eating beaks became more pronounced. In the early days of paleontology, their deep narrow tails and apparently-webbed fingers made them seem like aquatic animals (in keeping with their ducklike beaks). Now, however, we know that the three middle fingers were actually enclosed in a hooflike mitten of flesh, and the hadrosaurs were found in a variety of environments.

There are two major groups of hadrosaurs - the first, known as Lambeosaurines, were identifiable by the large hollow crests of bone on their heads. The other group, the Hadrosaurines, either had smaller solid crests or no crests at all, and broader beaks.

The late Cretaceous is well represented by Poser/DS dinosaurs. Among the plant-eaters, in addition to the hadrosaurs, this was the period of the ceratopsians (hornheads such as Triceratops and its relatives), as well as the armoured tank-like ankylosaurs. Preying on all of these plant-eaters were the fearsome tyrannosaurs, as well as mid-sized (dromaeosaurine) 'raptors. Birds were common, and the last few giant pterosaurs also flew overhead - the last few Pteranodon might have been around at the beginning of the hadrosaurs' reign, and the even larger 'azhdarchids' (Quetzalcoatlus etc) were around until the very end of the Cretaceous. Many modern types of plants had appeared, although there was still no grass.

The oceans at the time were ruled by giant lizards called mosasaurs, as well as fish-eating plesiosaurs and giant turtles.

Additional images

Poser/DS Technical Notes

  • Easypose dials exist to assist in posing the neck, tail, and tongue
  • Hadrosaur types should be changed via the MAT/MOR pose files (by both Poser and DS users) - using the dials in the figure will not update the maps, or associated morphs.
  • Once the Hadrosaur Expansion Pack is installed, the plain Corythosaurus cr2, and the MAT files in the Pose directory, can be deleted, as they can be called from the MAT-MOR files in the Expansion Pack. Do NOT delete any of the geometries or textures that came with the base Corythosaurus, however, as these are not duplicated in the Expansion Pack.