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# Using the Camera Parameter Dials

When you have a camera selected as your current object in the Scene tab, the parameters of the camera appear in the Parameters tab. While some of these parameters allow you to adjust the camera somewhat like the controls already mentioned, there are additional parameters that might be of interest to those who want to create their own cameras.

Every camera in your scene, including those you create yourself, have the following types of parameter dials:

## The Transforms Section

The controls in the Transforms section are common to practically every type of object you have in your scene, and while they are discussed in more detail in the Parameters tab section, we’ll give a brief description here.

• Translation: The Translate dials move the camera in all directions. For example, if your camera is being blocked by a wall in your scene, you can use the Translate dials to move the camera in front of the wall. The X Translate dial moves the selected camera left or right. The Y Translate dial moves the camera up or down. The Z Translate dial moves the camera forward or backward.

• Rotation: The Rotation dials rotate the camera in all directions. To explain, think of yourself holding a camera and pointing it upward to photograph the top of a building. However, note that on the surface, it doesn’t seem to follow the “norm” about how the X, Y, and Z axes work. We’ll explain why rotation works this way in another section, but for now we will just list what the dials do. The X Rotate dial points the camera upward or downward. The Y Rotate dial points the camera to the left or right. The Z Rotate dial tilts (or banks) the camera to the left or right.

• Scale: The Scale sliders change the physical size of the camera object in your scene. They do not affect the way the camera displays your scene in any way. The Scale slider scales the camera equally in all directions. The X Scale slider adjusts the width of the camera geometry. The Y Scale slider adjusts the height of the camera geometry (in other words, it makes the camera longer or shorter). The Z Scale slider adjusts the depth of the camera geometry.

## The Misc Section

The Miscellaneous section of the Parameters tab also contains controls that are common to many objects in your scene. There are three options here: Visible, Selectable, and Point At.

• Visible: This button toggles the visibility of the currently selected camera. Click the button to toggle visibility On or Off. This option is helpful for when the camera is interfering with working in the scene.
• Visible in Render: Since cameras are not rendered in scenes, this toggle has no effect on cameras.
• Selectable: This button toggles whether or not the camera is selectable. For example, you can make the camera unselectable, to prevent accidental changes to its position or rotation when you are trying to select items in your scene that are close to it. Click the button to toggle this option On or Off.
• Point At: This option allows you to point your camera to a specific item in your scene. After clicking this button, you can select the item you want to point the camera toward from a hierarchical list of all of the items in your scene.

## The Camera Section

The Camera section of the Parameters tab contains options that are unique to cameras.

The following settings are controlled here:

• Perspective: When this option is set to On, the camera acts like a perspective camera. Whenever you create a new camera, it is a perspective camera by default. You can turn this option Off to turn a perspective camera into an orthogonal camera, or On to turn an orthogonal camera into a perspective camera. There is one powerful aspect to this feature. You can initially create a new camera as a Perspective camera and position and rotate it however you wish. After you set the position and rotation, set the Perspective toggle to Off. This changes your camera into an orthogonal camera that has its own local axes. In other words, instead of the X, Y, and Z axes position and rotation being related to the original center of the scene, they will relate to the position and rotation of the camera before you changed it to Orthogonal. The camera’s viewport look toward the camera’s own negative Z axis, with X and Y perpendicular in the horizontal and vertical directions relative to that Z axis.
• Focal Length (mm): A camera’s focal length is usually expressed in millimeters. The Focal Length slider allows you to zoom in and out of your scene without moving the camera. This is useful when, for instance, you want a wider angle within a small space in your scene. In 35mm-format cameras, lenses that have a focal length of about 50mm are termed standard. Focal lengths below 35mm are called wide angle lenses, and focal lengths above 85mm are called telephoto lenses. Lenses with user-controllable focal lengths are called zoom lenses.

• Depth of Field: The Depth of Field (DOF) is the distance from the camera at which objects appear most in focus. Setting this value is the same as adjusting the f-stop and focus on a professional SLR camera.

NOTE! The default camera created by DAZ Studio when creating a new scene cannot use DOF. You will need to create a new camera in order to use DOF.
• Focal Distance: Moves the focal point of the camera closer or farther away. The focal point is indicated by a red and green cross in the FOV wireframe.
• F/Stop: Adjusts the f-number of the camera aperture; the ratio of light/exposure. If the DOF planes are visible, you can visually see that decreasing the F/Stop will decrease the area of focus for the DOF while increasing the F/Stop setting will increase the area of focus.

Refer to “Rendering with Depth of Field” for using DOF while rendering.

## The Display Section

### Scene View Options

The Scene View options determine how the camera wireframe is viewed when looking at the scene from an orthogonal or perspective camera/view that is not the camera being worked with. Refer to the image below to see what the different parts of the wireframe are called.

• Misc -
• Display Persistence: This toggle determines whether the camera FOV and DOF wireframes are visible even when the camera is not selected. When placing objects in the scene, setting this toggle to On will make it easier to place objects where needed. Toggle to Off to set the camera wireframes to invisible when the camera is not selected.

• Line of Sight: These parameters set the Line of Sight (LOS) options for the camera. LOS is what directs our sight into a specific direction.

• Sight Line Opacity: Sets the opacity of the Sight Line which is a visible line directing the camera's sight to an object or location in the scene. Decrease the opacity to make the line less visible, increase to make the line stand out more in the scene.
• Focal Point Scale: Sets the size of the Focal Point so that it can be seen more clearly within the scene.
• Field of View: These parameters set the color and what parts of the scene are viewable through the camera, i.e., the Field of View (FOV).

• FOV Color: Sets the color of the FOV wireframe to distinguish it within the scene. Click on the Color Selector to access a color dialog and select a new color.
• FOV Opacity: Sets the opacity of the FOV wireframe. Decrease the opacity to make the frame less visible, increase to make the frame stand out more in the scene.
• FOV Length: Sets the length of the FOV wireframe allowing you to see what objects will be visible from the camera. This does not increase or decrease the FOV, you'll need to use the Focal Length to do that, but it does allow you to see where the FOV extends into the scene.
• Depth of Field: These parameters set the visibility and color of the DOF Planes in the scene. The planes show where the area where the objects will be in focus begins and ends. Anything in front of the Near DOF Plane or behind the Far DOF Plane will be out of focus. Anything between the two planes will be in focus.

• DOF Plane Visibility: This toggle sets whether the DOF planes are visible or not. If you are not using DOF in your scene, click on the toggle to set it to Off and the plane wireframes will no longer be visible in the scene.
• DOF Plane Color: Sets the color of the DOF Plane wireframes to distinguish them within the scene. Click on the Color Selector to access a color dialog and select a new color.

### Camera View Options

The Camera View options determine how the scene is viewed when looking at the scene from the camera itself. Currently it only controls the DOF plane color and visibility.

• Depth of Field: Controls the settings of the DOF Overlay visible through the camera. The overlay is basically the DOF Planes as seen through the camera and allow you to determine focus and depth of field while viewing the scene from the camera.
• DOF Overlay Color: Sets the color of the DOF Overlay visible through the camera so that it is easier to see it against the objects in the scene.
• DOF Overlay Opacity: Sets the opacity of the DOF Overlay visibile through the camera. Decrease the opacity to make it less visible in the scene, increase to make it more visible in the scene..
• Near DOF Plane Visibility: This toggles whether the Near DOF Plane is visible in the scene or not. If the plane is visible, anything behind the plane (the overlay) will be hidden from the camera view in OpenGL. Anything between the plane and the camera will be out of focus when rendered if the DOF is on. Anything between the near and far plane will be in focus.
• Far DOF Plane Visibility: This toggles whether the Far DOF Plane is visible in the scene or not. If the plane is visible, anything behind the plane will be hidden from the camera view in OpenGL. Anything behind the plane will be out of focus when rendered if the DOF is on.